The limitations of deterministic modeling in biology

Over the three centuries that have elapsed since its invention, calculus has become the lingua franca for describing dynamic systems mathematically. Across a vast array of applications from the behavior of a suspension bridge under load to the orbit of a communications satellite, calculus has often been the intellectual foundation upon which our science and technology have advanced. It was only natural therefore that researchers in the relatively new field of biology would eagerly embrace an approach that has yielded such transformative advances in other fields. The application of calculus to the deterministic modeling of biological systems however, can be problematic for a number of different reasons...

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Gordon Webster